Printed circuit board assembly is the process of connecting electronic components to a rigid, flat board to create a working circuit. PCB assembly has two types: surface mount and through-hole construction.

Through-hole Construction

The leads of through-hole construction are pushed into the board through holes and attached to the pads on the other side through soldering. This can be done manually or with mounting machines. From the 1950s, the through-hole method has been used to replace point-to-point construction until surface mounting became widespread in the 1980s.

Surface Mount Construction

PCB AssemblyIn surface mount construction, the electronic components have direct connections to the surface of the board. The surface mount components are really smaller than those of the through-hole construction because their leads are smaller or they do not have leads at all. They often use flat contacts, solder balls, or pins to replace the leads. This can be an advantage of surface mount over through-hole components. Aside from that, surface mount can have a lot more connection and they have much simpler and quicker assembly. This construction also allows components to be assembled on either side of the board. In general, they are also less expensive that through-hole components.

Although surface mount components are more popular, through-hole construction is still used today. Some components are only available for through-hole and vice versa.

Printed Circuit Board Assembly Services

Oftentimes, PCB assembly is outsourced by manufacturers to a specialist company because setting up a PCB unit is quite an investment. There are lots of small components needed to complete a PCB.

In general, small and medium-sized firms contract electronics specialist companies to create their PCB units. There are some advantages in contracting the services of a specialist company. These are:

1. Save Investment and Labor Costs

Normally, the capital investment in printed circuit board assembly unit is quite high. A manufacturing firm could simply contract out these expenses and save a lot of money. This money can be used to set up their operations, manage inventory, upgrade and maintain their facilities, hire labor, etc.

2. Take Advantage of Specialized Services

An electronics contract company has limited services, but they probably specialize in these services. For example, a contract company has a dedicated work force and a system to look out after their PCB projects. Doing this guarantees specialized services that adhere to up-to-date industry standards.

3. Focus on Basic Skills

The manufacturing company can now focus on their core expertise if they contract out other tasks to a third company. They can spend more efforts in developing their brand and intensifying their marketing and sales network.

When selecting a firm to contract out the PCB assembly, it is crucial to make a knowledgeable decision. Here are some of the things to be considered when selecting third party PCB services:

• The most important thing to consider is to make sure the firm has the latest dual in-line and surface mount technologies. These are the most up-to-date standards in the PCB industry.

• Since most electronic devices have become smaller, it is important to incorporate multi-layer printed circuit boards. Therefore, the chosen firm must be able to produce printed circuit boards with eight layers or more if necessary.

• Other details to keep in mind include the capacity to utilize a range of conductive elements to fit the company’s electrical circuit requirements. Moreover, secondary in-line operations like ball grid array (BGA) need to be checked. Bonding services must also be provided by the third party firm.

• It is also important to make sure that the third party PCB assembly firm has complied for RoHS services and uses only UL-listed products to adhere to environment-friendly standards.

Prohormones: Easiest Way to A Muscular You

on January 22, 2015 in Chemicals | Comments Off on Prohormones: Easiest Way to A Muscular You

Exercise is the Hardest Way

Exercise, coupled with the right diet, is the natural but the hardest way to get that physique of a bodybuilder. If you do exercises such as sit-ups, crunches, squats and deadlifts, sure you can gain muscle. However, that’s for the abs area only. You have to perform a whole exercise program just to achieve a muscular body.

However, exercise might be the hardest part to do for most people. For one, it requires a lot of time on the person’s part. Getting to and fro the office and gym is itself taxing, what more of the expenses you incur in availing the gym’s services? It’s a lot easier if muscle is something you can buy. Prohormones, fortunately, makes this possible for you.

Prohormones 101

prohormonesA steroid that is modified to have an opposite molecular structure to that of the male hormone testosterone is called a “prohormone”. However, while a prohormone is a “modified steroid” so to speak, it is not classified as a steroid. It is because it is only a precursor of an anabolic steroid, so it cannot refer to the same.

Prohormones, when taken, will be converted to active hormones by the body. As such, the body’s hormone supply will increase. The effect is similar to that of a steroid; you will gain muscle.

Post Cycle Therapy

Because of the increased levels of testosterone in your body, there will definitely be some side-effects if not regulated well. Some side-effects include swelling of the prostate, balding and acne. As such, post cycle therapy is necessary if you plan to buy prohormones.

Taking prohormones is like adding a surge of testosterone in your body. Because there are excessive levels of hormones, the body will sort of “shut down” its hormone-making facility. Therefore, when you have achieved your ideal body through prohormones and you decide to stop, your body might not produce the same number of testosterone as before.

To bring the body back to its previous state of producing enough hormones, you have to take the post cycle therapy. Supplements such as Nolvadex should be taken one month after you have completed your prohormones cycle.

Cycle Support

As said above, prohormones affect not only our muscles and fats but also other parts of the body. Similar to other supplements in the market, the effect of the prohormones depends on the condition of the body and its acceptance to the drug. Some people only experience mild side effects while others have none. Anyhow, to protect unintended changes in your body, you need to perform a cycle support in conjunction with the prohormones cycle.

Why Buy Prohormones?

This has been used by a lot of bodybuilders, athletes and even Hollywood actors to achieve a well-toned body. Since it is used by reputable personages in the world of body building, one is sure that this supplement is effective to use.

In fact, prohormones are classified as dietary supplements and not steroids. Since they are not steroids, they are legal to purchase and is not subject to the stringent regulations of US Food and Drug Administration for prescription hormones.

Learn to Help Your Body

While prohormones help your body make some muscles without sweating for it, you have to make sure that you take the essential nutrients that your body needs to produce such tissues. Cut back on the saturated fat and load your diet with protein and vitamins from fruits and vegetables.

Prohormones can be considered a man’s best friend. It gives you strength and endurance, and at the same time, it encourages you to live healthy. If you decide buy prohormones today, you will definitely feel and look a lot better for tomorrow.

Everybody has worn a lanyard at least once in their lives. This can be attributed to the fact that every establishment, institution and business employs lanyards as a part of their day to day activities. Every week, hundreds of wholesale orders are placed by schools, corporations, organizations, bazaar and exhibit organizers and charities because lanyards are affordable and fully customizable. The cord of each lanyard can be printed with the designated logo and text. To fully appreciate them, here is a brief rundown about their history.


LanyardsThe earliest record in history about the use of lanyards can be traced back to the 15th century. The typical lanyard used long ago is almost unrecognizable today. The term “lanyard” was derived from the French word “lanière” which refers to any material used as a strap. They were made out of leather and scrap fabrics of varying lengths and thickness. There is not one recorded inventor of the lanyard but it is well implied that people came up with the idea out of necessity.

They say war gives birth to innovations. The French soldiers have been recorded to use a leather strap where they fasten their pistols and whistles. At that time, they were still inclined to use swords, which is why lanyards were discovered fastened to the hilts of old French army swords. Some of the lanyard cords were purposely made very long so that they can be attached or hooked to the trigger of a pistol, or on the detonators of explosives. Using this neat little tool, the soldier would be able to shoot or kill a target without being harmed or spotted.

A lanyard is often attached to pistols and handguns to keep them secured in their holsters. This kind of lanyard is often detachable. Since their invention, they have been available in different colors in the military to match a soldier’s uniform, rank and position.

The earliest uses of lanyards can be traced back to ancient seafarers. Sailors need their hands for more important tasks such as adjusting the rigging of the ship, fixing damages, and carrying supplies. Because they need to work almost all the time, they needed to have a lot of tools handy with them wherever they go. While a bag or a sling or belt pouch may seem helpful, the need to dig into the bag and search for the appropriate tool would be a waste of time. Therefore, they came up with the idea of attaching the tools to the end of a strap of fabric hung around their necks. This allowed them to easily reach for their tools anytime. This also saved them time from searching for these tools in their pockets or pouches. The common tools sailors used are monoculars, binoculars, whistles and daggers. Some even carry their liquor flasks at the end of the lanyard.


Today, most people use a lanyard differently from its early uses. They no longer use them to hold tool or firearms. However, the same principle applies; a lanyard today is still used to secure an object and let the wearer carry it around his neck. Lanyards are used nowadays in offices and in schools to carry ID’s and USB flash drives. Coaches and police officers carry their whistles using a lanyard.

Corporations and academic institutions can issue their own lanyard with a customized label and logo. There are many attachments available. This option makes it suitable to carry almost any small to medium objects with varying weight, including smartphones, cameras, camcorders and even small hard disk drives. Because the attached objects stay in front of the wearer, the chances are low that the object will be accidentally misplaced.

ID lanyards are everywhere. Used in schools, offices, and events, ID lanyards serve as holders for the essentials of people who live and work in the 21st century.